HPV in Women

What is HPV?

HPV is the most common Sexually transmitted infections — there are more than 200 strains that we know of — of them about 40 can infect the genital area.

HPV is spread through having vaginal, anal, or oral sex with someone who has the virus.

Unless HPV develops into genital warts, most people diagnosing at home will never know they’ve been infected. The infection usually goes away on its own. But, when they are present, the symptoms of HPV in women commonly include:

  • Abnormal changes to cervical cells (found via a pap smear)
  • Genital warts, appearing as small cauliflower-like bumps, flat sores, or tiny stem-like protrusions

How can I avoid HPV?

Today, three vaccines prevent infections of the two types of HPV that cause about 70% of cervical cancers. One also prevents infection of the two types of HPV that cause 90% of genital warts. Not everyone, however, is a candidate for the vaccinations, which are typically recommended only for those ages nine to 26.

The most effective way of preventing HPV from becoming cervical cancer, is routine gynecological checkups. Pap smears can identify any abnormal cell changes on the cervix, and HPV tests can identify infection or recent infection with human papillomavirus.

What if I think I have HPV?

While there is no test that can determine if a person has the HPV virus, it’s always best to visit with your obstetrician-gynecologist if you have concerns. Typically, though, HPV clears on its own. However, if genital warts are present and uncomfortable they can be treated using everything from topical ointment to freezing to even surgery.

With HPV, while it’s not a curable infection, individuals who stay healthy (they are active and don’t smoke, for example) and have a healthy immune system are more likely to clear on their own, and are at less risk of HPV becoming cancer or genital warts.

Toxoplasmosis



 Is a parasitic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Infections with toxoplasmosis usually cause no obvious symptoms in adults. Occasionally, people may have a few weeks or months of mild, flu-like illness such as muscle aches and tender lymph nodes. In a small number of people, eye problems may develop. In those with a weak immune system, severe symptoms such as seizures and poor coordination may occur. If infected during pregnancy, a condition known as congenital toxoplasmosis may affect the child.

Route of transmission: – Toxoplasmosis is usually spread by eating poorly cooked food that contains cysts, exposure to infected cat feces, and from a mother to a child during pregnancy if the mother becomes infected. Rarely, the disease may be spread by blood transfusion. It is not otherwise spread between people. The parasite is known to reproduce sexually only in the cat family .However, it can infect most types of warm-blooded animals, including humans. Diagnosis is typically by testing blood for antibodies or by testing amniotic fluid for the parasite’s DNA.

Prevention is by properly preparing and cooking food. Pregnant women are also recommended not to clean cat litter boxes, hand washing, well prepared food and meat cooked, using different dash cutting for the meat and vegetable.

 Treatment of otherwise healthy people is usually not needed.[5] During pregnancy, spiramycin or pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine and folinic acid may be used for treatment.



Thalassemias

 are inherited blood disorders characterized by abnormal hemoglobin production. Symptoms depend on the type and can vary from none to severe. Often there is mild to severe anemia (low red blood cells). Anemia can result in feeling tired and pale skin. There may also be bone problems, an enlarged spleen, yellowish skin, and dark urine. Slow growth may occur in children.

Thalassemias are genetic disorders inherited from a person’s parents. There are two main types, alpha thalassemia and beta thalassemia. The severity of alpha and beta thalassemia depends on how many of the four genes for alpha globin or two genes for beta globin are missing. Diagnosis is typically by blood tests including a complete blood count, special hemoglobin tests, and genetic tests. Diagnosis may occur before birth through prenatal testing.

Now in Duhok city more than 1000 patients registered 

Treatment depends on the type and severity. Treatment for those with more severe disease often includes regular blood transfusions, iron chelation, and folic acid. Iron chelation may be done with deferoxamine or deferasirox. Occasionally, a bone marrow transplant may be an option. Complications may include iron overload from the transfusions with resulting heart or liver disease, infections, and osteoporosis. If the spleen becomes overly enlarged, surgical removal may be required.

Rubella

Rubella, also known as German measles or three-day measles, is an infection caused by the rubella virus.This disease is often mild with half of people not realizing that they are infected. A rash may start around two weeks after exposure and last for three days.It usually starts on the face and spreads to the rest of the body. The rash is sometimes itchy and is not as bright as that of measles. Swollen lymph nodes are common and may last a few weeks. A fever, sore throat, and fatigue may also occur.In adults joint pain is common. Complications may include bleeding problems, testicular swelling, and inflammation of nerves. Infection during early pregnancy may result in a child born with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) or miscarriage. Symptoms of CRS include problems with the eyes such as cataracts, ears such as deafness, heart, and brain. Problems are rare after the 20th week of pregnancy.

Rubella is usually spread through the air via coughs of people who are infected.People are infectious during the week before and after the appearance of the rash. Babies with CRS may spread the virus for more than a year. Only humans are infected. Insects do not spread the disease.Once recovered, people are immune to future infections. Testing is available that can verify immunity. Diagnosis is confirmed by finding the virus in the blood, throat, or urine.Testing the blood for antibodies may also be useful.

Rubella is preventable with the rubella vaccine with a single dose being more than 95% effective. Often it is given in combination with the measles vaccine and mumps vaccine, known as the MMR vaccine.When some, but less than 80%, of a population is vaccinated, more women may reach childbearing age without developing immunity by infection or vaccination, thus possibly raising CRS rates. Once infected there is no specific treatment.

Rubella can cause congenital rubella syndrome in the newborn, the most severe sequela of rubella. The syndrome (CRS) follows intrauterine infection by the rubella virus and comprises cardiac, cerebral, ophthalmic and auditory defects. It may also cause prematurity, low birth weight, and neonatal thrombocytopenia, anemia and hepatitis. The risk of major defects or organogenesis is highest for infection in the first trimester. CRS is the main reason a vaccine for rubella was developed.

Many mothers who contract rubella within the first critical trimester either have a miscarriage or a stillborn baby. If the fetus survives the infection, it can be born with severe heart disorders (patent ductus arteriosus being the most common), blindness, deafness, or other life-threatening organ disorders. The skin manifestations are called “blueberry muffin lesions”. For these reasons, rubella is included on the TORCH complex of perinatal infections.

Folic Acid and Pregnancy

Folic acid or vitamin B9 vitamin is important for the pregnant women to born healthy baby. And if the women want to be pregnant she should take this vitamin at least 3 months before pregnancy and during pregnancy about 400 μg daily.

Folic acid or folate or vitamin B9 which important for the cell formation specially blood cell, spinal cord , brain and deficiency of this vitamin lead to congenital abnormalities of the fetus.

Folic acid present in green vegetables and fortified cereal but not enough. Folic acid should be commenced as early as possible (ideally before conception) to prevent neural tube defects.

Dr. Farashin Silevany donating to Weh Center.

Dr. Farashin Silevany donating to Weh Center to support the center activities and course.

دکتور فەراشین سلێڤانەی

ئەم زور سوباسیا دکتور فەراشین سلێڤانەی دکەین کو رابویە ب پێشکێشکرنا کوژمەکێ پارەی وەک پشتەڤانی بو سەنتەری وێ و ژبو بەردەوامی دانێ د خول و چالاکیێن سەنتەریFarashin Silevany

Geplaatst door Women For Better Healthy Life op Maandag 29 april 2019

Thalassaemia

Thalassaemia is a diseases affecting the red blood cells, producing either no or too little hemoglobin, which is used by red blood cells to carry oxygen around the body. Lack of hemoglobin results in reduced oxygen to every cell in the body. Thalassaemia is caused by mutations in the DNA of cells that make hemoglobin. Such mutations are passed from parents to children.
Main Symptoms:

  • Fatigue and weakness.
  • Pale or yellowish skin.
  • Delayed growth.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Abdominal swelling.
  • Bone deformities.
  • Frequent inflammations.


Thalassaemia is a group of inherited diseases that cannot be prevented. A person with thalassaemia or trait should consult a specialist in genetic disorders.To prevent vertical transmission, premarital screening is recommended to verify whether man or woman carries mutant chains of genes.

How to reduce the risk of CMV in pregnancy


The best way to reduce the risk of catching CMV during pregnancy is with some simple hygiene measures:

-Wash your hands using soap and hot water – especially after changing nappies, feeding young children or wiping their nose

-Regularly wash toys or other items that get young children’s saliva or urine on them

-Avoid sharing food, cutlery, drinking glasses or dummies with young children

There’s currently no vaccine for CMV.

Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS)

Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) is a condition that occurs in a developing baby in the womb whose mother is infected with the rubella virus. Pregnant women who contract rubella are at risk for miscarriage or stillbirth, and their developing babies are at risk for severe birth defects with devastating, lifelong consequences. CRS can affect almost everything in the developing baby’s body.

The most common birth defects from CRS can include:

  • Deafness
  • Cataracts
  • Heart defects
  • Intellectual disabilities
  • Liver and spleen damage
  • Low birth weight
  • Skin rash at birth

Less common complications from CRS can include:

  • Glaucoma
  • Brain damage
  • Thyroid and other hormone problems
  • Inflammation of the lungs

 it is important for women to get vaccinated before they get pregnant.

Hepatitis B: How can I protect myself?

 What is hepatitis B?

 Hepatitis B is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). The virus interferes with the functions of the liver and causes pathological damage. A small percentage of infected people cannot get rid of the virus and become chronically infected – these people are at higher risk of death from cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer.

 How do you get hepatitis B?

HBV is spread by contact with blood or body fluids of an infected person – the same way as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, HBV is 50 to 100 times more infectious than HIV.

The main ways of getting infected with HBV are:

-from mother to baby at the birth (perinatal)

-from child-to-child

-unsafe injections and transfusions

-unprotected sexual contact

 How can I protect myself?

You can protect yourself against hepatitis B by being vaccinated. The hepatitis B vaccine has an outstanding record of safety and effectiveness, and since 1982, over 1 billion doses have been used worldwide. The vaccine is 95% effective in preventing chronic infections from developing.